Accurate, Focused Research on Law, Technology and Knowledge Discovery Since 2002

Category Archives: Education

Women in Academic Science: A Changing Landscape

Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2014, Vol. 15(3) 75–141. Stephen J. Ceci1, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, and Wendy M. Williams

“Much has been written in the past two decades about women in academic science careers, but this literature is contradictory. Many analyses have revealed a level playing field, with men and women faring equally, whereas  other analyses have suggested numerous areas in which the playing field is not level. The only widely-agreed-upon conclusion is that women are underrepresented in college majors, graduate school programs, and the professoriate in those fields that are the most mathematically intensive, such as geoscience, engineering, economics, mathematics/computer science, and the physical sciences. In other scientific fields (psychology, life science, social science), women are found in much higher percentages. In this monograph, we undertake extensive life-course analyses comparing the trajectories of women and men in  math-intensive fields with those of their counterparts in non-math-intensive fields in which women are close to parity with or even exceed the number of men. We begin by examining early-childhood differences in spatial processing and follow this through quantitative performance in middle childhood and adolescence, including high school coursework. We then focus on the transition of the sexes from high school to college major, then to graduate school, and, finally, to careers in academic science. The results of our myriad analyses reveal that early sex differences in spatial and mathematical reasoning need not  stem from biological bases, that the gap between average female and male math ability is narrowing (suggesting strong environmental influences), and that sex differences in math ability at the right tail show variation over time and across  nationalities, ethnicities, and other factors, indicating that the ratio of males to females at the right tail can and does  change. We find that gender differences in attitudes toward and expectations about math careers and ability (controlling for actual ability) are evident by kindergarten and increase thereafter, leading to lower female propensities to major in math-intensive subjects in college but higher female propensities to major in non-math-intensive sciences, with overall science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at 50% female for more than a decade. Post-college, although men with majors in math-intensive subjects have historically chosen and completed PhDs in these fields more often than women, the gap has recently narrowed by two thirds; among non-math-intensive STEM majors, women are more likely than men to go into health and other people-related occupations instead of pursuing PhDs. Importantly, of those who obtain doctorates in math-intensive fields, men and women entering the professoriate have equivalent access to tenure-track academic jobs in science, and they persist and are remunerated at comparable rates—with some caveats that we discuss. The transition from graduate programs to assistant professorships shows more pipeline leakage in the fields in which women are already very prevalent (psychology, life science, social science) than in the math-intensive fields in which they are underrepresented but in which the number of females holding assistant professorships is at least commensurate with (if not greater than) that of males. That is, invitations to interview for tenure-track positions in math-intensive fields—as well as actual employment offers—reveal that female PhD applicants fare at least as well as their male counterparts in math-intensive fields.”

 

Engel, Smith Offer Bill to Improve Culture Preservation, Curb ISIL Funding

“Representative Eliot L. Engel (D-NY), the leading Democrat on the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Representative Chris Smith (R-NJ), chair of the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations today announced that they have introduced legislation to improve American efforts to preserve cultural property around the world and cut offContinue Reading

Tuition and Fees, 1998-99 Through 2014-15

Chronicle of Higher Education: “This table shows the “sticker prices”—published tuition and required fees—at more than 3,100 colleges and universities for the 2014-15 academic year. Click the institutions’ names to see historical data back to 1998. Related Article: “Forget the Rise in Tuition and Fees, What About Living Expenses?”

The Employment Status and Occupations of Gulf War-Era Veterans

“A new report, “The Employment Status and Occupations of Gulf War-Era Veterans,” looks at those Gulf War veterans who began service on or after August 1990, the official start of the first Gulf War. It differentiates between “Gulf War I” veterans — those who served only during the August 1990 to August 2001 period —Continue Reading

Employment-Based Retirement Plan Participation

Employment-Based Retirement Plan Participation: Geographic Differences and Trends, 2013. October 2014 . Issue Brief #405 Employee Benefit Research Institute, 2014 “The percentage of workers participating in an employment-based retirement plan rose in 2013, increasing for the first time since 2010 among all workers and private-sector workers. The retirement plan participation level depends on the type of worker beingContinue Reading

U.S. Chamber Foundation Report Focuses on Benefits of Data-Driven Innovation

“The U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation…released a report which, through the insights of several notable industry experts, offers a look at current data-related issues and innovations and the ways in which they will shape the future of data-driven innovation and the economy. The report, The Future of Data-Driven Innovation, includes contributions from some of the topContinue Reading

Oxfam’s new report on global inequalty

“From Ghana to Germany, South Africa to Spain, the gap between rich and poor is rapidly increasing, and economic inequality has reached extreme levels. In South Africa, inequality is greater today than at the end of Apartheid.The consequences are corrosive for everyone. Extreme inequality corrupts politics, hinders economic growth and stifles social mobility. It fuels crimeContinue Reading

Tools You Can Use: Personal Finance

White House: “Here to help you make smart personal financial decisions and protect your hard-earned income. Including: College Scorecard; Savings Planner; Sales Tax Deduction Calculator; Free File; College Budget Calculator; Mortgage Payment Reduction Estimator; Finding a Housing Counselor; Student Loan Repayment Calculator.

Why Libraries [Still] Matter

Why Libraries [Still] Matter – Jonathan Zittrain…”To this day, the Harvard Law School Library, which I direct, claims distinction as the largest academic law library in the world. Volume of volumes was never the whole story, though. Libraries have, over time, inhabited the roles not only of guardians of knowledge, but of curators, and not merely forContinue Reading

Labor Department’s Office Web portal on accessible workplace technology

“The U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy today announced the launch of http://www.PEATworks.org — a comprehensive Web portal spearheaded by ODEP’s Partnership on Employment & Accessible Technology. From educational articles to interactive tools, the website’s content aims to help employers and the technology industry adopt accessible technology as part of everyday business practiceContinue Reading

Tuition costs of colleges and universities

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Fast Facts: “What are the trends in the cost of college education? Response: For the 2011–12 academic year, annual current dollar prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board were estimated to be $14,300 at public institutions, $37,800 at private nonprofit institutions, and $23,300 at private for-profit institutions. Between 2001–02 and 2011–12, pricesContinue Reading

Struggling private student loan borrowers are still searching for help

CFPB: “In the years leading up to the financial crisis, many of the same subprime lending practices that led to troubles in the mortgage market also existed in the private student loan market. Like the homeowners who turned to their mortgage servicer to modify their loans but ran into customer service dead ends, lost paperworkContinue Reading