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How does an EV battery actually work?

MIT Technology Review: “Are lithium batteries sustainable enough to fulfill the dream of the electric-car revolution? The batteries propelling electric vehicles have quickly become the most crucial component, and expense, for a new generation of cars and trucks. They represent not only the potential for cleaner transportation but also broad shifts in geopolitical power, industrial dominance, and environmental protection. According to recent predictions, EVs will make up just over half of new passenger car sales in the US by 2030. One estimate suggests that the potential growth of the global battery market could require 90 more facilities the size of the Tesla Gigafactory to be built over the next decade. Lithium-ion batteries, also found in smartphones, power the vast majority of electric vehicles. Lithium is very reactive, and batteries made with it can hold high voltage and exceptional charge, making for an efficient, dense form of energy storage. These batteries are expected to remain dominant in EVs for the foreseeable future thanks to plunging costs and improvements in performance. Right now, electric-car batteries typically weigh around 1,000 pounds, cost around $15,000 to manufacture, and have enough power to run a typical home for a few days. While their charging capacity degrades over time, they should last 10 to 20 years…”

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